Airplane, hotel, beach: how not to catch the infection in the most contagious places on vacation
The list of the most dangerous places that love harmful bacteria, infections and viruses, doctors and researchers are constantly updating. Year-round, they are handrails of the metro, handles of carts and doors in stores, cell phones and tablets (there are more bacteria on them than under the rim of the toilet bowl). In winter, windows are added to public transport (flu viruses and ARVI live well on them). In the summer too many dangers. Indeed, hundreds of harmful bacteria reproduce well in the heat.
Where the most nasty infections live, KP suggests Mikhail Lebedev, leading expert of the Center for Molecular Diagnostics CMD, Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Rospotrebnadzor.
1. On the way to rest
Luggage trays at airports, train stations.
If you use the subway, electric trains and other land transport, then with any "new" pathogens at the airport, on the plane, at the station and on the train you will not meet. Nevertheless, the results of many studies confirm that at the airport the most “dangerous” places are booths at checkpoints and baggage trays.
- How not to get sick: Always carry antibacterial wipes or gels. Wipe your hands after touching the tray.
Tables and armchairs in the aircraft.
The time between arrival and departure of the next flight is usually limited (especially in the "hot" summer season). Therefore, there is almost no time left for thorough cleaning. Meanwhile, researchers found a huge number of very different microorganisms in the airplanes - causative agents of intestinal, respiratory and other infections.
Most of the germs are on the surface of the pull-out tables and in the pocket located on the front chair (it is there, in addition to magazines and instructions, that there are often food remains, used napkins and other debris).
- How not to get sick: never handle food with unwashed (or untreated napkins) hands. Touch your face as little as possible (especially your mouth and nose). Folding table, armchair handles, it is advisable to wipe with wet disinfectant wipes.
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Toilet on the plane.
At stations and airports they are cleaned carefully. But in flight (even long-term) to maintain cleanliness in the toilet, it is only possible to remove debris from the floor and splash air freshener. In addition to the toilet bowl, the constantly wet sink is an ideal breeding ground for various microbes. After using the toilet, wipe your hands with an antibacterial cloth.
- How not to get sick: Of course, it is best not to use the toilet during the flight at all (or to use it as little as possible). But if needed, it is necessary to close the toilet lid before turning on the flush. If this is not done, then all viruses and bacteria from the toilet bowl will “fly apart” in a very limited space of the onboard toilet.
Food in the train.
Dangerous places during a long journey in the train are the same as on the plane: toilet, handles, including windows in the compartment, handrails in the car. And the safety rules are not fundamentally different. But traveling by rail is always longer, which means it is easier to pick up the main infections (intestinal and ARVI).
- How not to get sick: Do not take perishable products with you on a long journey, do not buy food and drinks of dubious quality from the trays at the stations. Follow the rules of personal hygiene, use disinfecting wipes and gels, especially after visiting the toilet.
2. On a rest
Market and beach vendors: the temptation to try everything.
In the summer, with improper storage, almost any ready-made dishes and culinary products become dangerous after only 2-3 hours (this applies even to products with a long shelf life). Even boiled salted corn, cooked in the morning and lying in the sun, may well become a source of both an infectious disease and serious food poisoning. What to say about the various pies, belyash and shaurme ...
- How not to get sick: safe for health, you can eat only food that does not deteriorate in the heat and that can be purchased anywhere - cookies, biscuits, nuts, crackers, etc. But only in factory packaging! In the most "hungry" case, you only need to buy what was cooked before your eyes (the same pasties or belyashes).
Doubtful cafe: be afraid of ice in cocktails.
Of course, quite strict requirements are imposed on organized stationary food outlets (cafes, eateries, etc.). Such food points should be equipped with refrigeration equipment for storing perishable foodstuffs, drinks, ice cream; in the assortment - only finished food products of industrial production or products from semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness in consumer packaging with the possibility of only heating; bread, baked goods and confectionery products should only be dispensed in packaged form. The employees of such enterprises must have medical records.
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But if there is no full confidence that all these conditions are met, it is better to abandon the services of such enterprises.
- How not to get sick: try not to take drinks with ice (they can freeze unboiled water). Refuse any dubious products: pies and cream cakes, perishable foods that have lain for an hour or two outside the refrigerator - a direct route to the infectious diseases ward of the nearest hospital with an acute intestinal infection.
Hotel pool or sauna, hammam: beach shower, wet bumpers, sun beds.
For pools developed strict hygienic standards, sanitary standards, and methods of water disinfection. But if sanitary and hygienic norms are not observed, the water in the pool can be a source of infection with a variety of pathogens.
What can be picked up in the pool
In poorly treated pools with insufficient water exchange, it is possible to become infected with the hepatitis A virus, the causative agent of acute infectious liver disease. You can "get" and other acute intestinal infections: dysentery, campylobacteriosis, escherichiosis, etc. Possible infection with lamblia - the simplest, which is one of the main causes of intestinal dysfunction and diarrhea in children. Enteroviruses (in particular the Coxsackie virus) are also often waterborne. Most often, viruses are spread by accidentally swallowing water.
But even if the pool itself is safe, there is a risk of infection in other places: the dressing room, at the side of the pool, shower, through the floor, handrails, etc. And then the most common infections are skin fungus and molluscum contagiosum. This is especially true hamam or massage room.
How not to get sick:
- Go in special shoes or brought with you.
- Use only your towel, sheets.
- Immediately after swimming in the pool to take a shower; It is possible to use an antifungal gel.
- You should not visit the pool, if there are wounds on the skin.
- Another danger: the development of an allergic reaction during massage and various wraps. Special procedures are used for these procedures (green coffee, berry extracts, kelp, coconut oil, gels and creams), which can be strong allergens. Therefore, allergy sufferers should be especially careful when conducting such procedures.
Beaches: do not go barefoot.
If you do not follow the rules of precaution, then get infected with a variety of infections on a beach holiday, especially on the so-called "wild" beaches - just spit. Protozoa (lamblia, amoebas, trypanosomes), pathogenic fungi, helminths (worms), and various bacteria inhabit the beach sand.
And especially the beach wet sand is dangerous for children who like to build castles: at depths in 5-6, see this is the most favorable habitat for reproduction and reproduction of various microorganisms. Moreover, it is not treated with any disinfectants.
- How not to get sick: Smaller walk barefoot, do not allow children to drag into the mouth, hands soiled with sand, pebbles, sticks and other coastal "treasures".
FOR THE NOTICE
What can be picked up in reservoirs
The quality of water is influenced by many factors: the state of the bottom and the beach area, the presence of a current (keys, springs, etc.), the presence of drains (rain, sewer, industrial), a large number of tourists, the presence of waterfowl, etc. The most "dangerous" is small a reservoir with stagnant water, oozy bottom, especially in hot weather. And if ducks swim in it and stray animals bathe, the danger increases.
The most common infectious diseases that can be infected when bathing:
- Schistosomal dermatitis ("bather's itch"). The source of infection is ducks and freshwater molluscs. Schistosomal larvae infect the upper layer of human skin (epidermis). In this case, there is severe itching, swelling, skin rashes. In children, the disease is more severe. The illness lasts from a few hours to two weeks. In general, “bather's itch” is a harmless disease, but extremely unpleasant.
- Acute intestinal infections (Escherichiosis, dysentery, norovirus infection, adenovirus intestinal infection, enterovirus infection, etc.). Cholera is a particularly dangerous "water" infection, which unfortunately still occurs today.
- Leptospirosis is a serious infectious disease typical for countries with hot climates. Carrier - rodents, much less often - cattle, pigs.
- Diseases caused by protozoa (protozoal infections) - amebiasis (amoebic dysentery), balantidiasis, giardiasis, etc.
- Helminthic infestations: ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, strongyloidiasis, etc. For helminthiases, the water route of transmission is not the main one, but there is a risk.
- Viral hepatitis A (Botkin's disease) can be transmitted through water. Such cases are more common in hot countries with unsatisfactory hygienic conditions.
- How not to get sick: you just need to be careful and follow basic rules. The most important thing is to swim only in checked, specially designated places, not to neglect the signs "Swimming is prohibited!"
What are dangerous contact zoos
In addition to the danger from the animals themselves, who are under constant stress and fatigue from endless touches, and can react unexpectedly - bite, kick, scratch, there are several other dangers:
- Allergy associated with crowded keeping of animals in one room and, accordingly, the accumulation of a large number of allergens.
- Infection with pathogens common to humans and animals. Such infections are called zoonoses. Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) inhabit the body of certain animal species. They are not transmitted from person to person, but under certain circumstances they can become infected through contact with animals. Zoonoses include salmonellosis, plague, anthrax, tularemia, rabies, hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, etc. Many of these infections are deadly.
- The risk of infection with worms: if you play and pet the animal, and then put dirty hands in your mouth (as many children do).
How not to get sick: Follow the rules of behavior with animals, contact the staff if you have any questions. After contact, be sure to wash your hands or at least treat the gel, napkins.