Recent entry bans to the country of certain categories of immigrants, under which even some legitimate green card holders, gave rise to the discussion in the US information space about the appropriateness of the admission of foreigners in the country as such. Of course, it is quite amusing to observe such disputes in the country of emigrants, when the participants themselves, their parents or more distant ancestors once came here themselves from another country. Such a conversation is also inconclusive because emigrants even from the same country are so different from each other that it is simply impossible to apply one label common to all in the categories “bad” or “good”.
Below I will try to give an approximate classification of different types of emigrants. It is clear that any classification is conditional, and under the designations of a particular category I mean first of all a certain, if I may say so, psycho-type, which can manifest itself in particular people to a greater or lesser extent.
1. "Patriot." This is a person with a highly developed sense of homeland and the need to treat any country as one’s own. It is typical for him to feel his obligations to a certain state, to feel responsibility for him and to consider himself to be part of it.
Such a person sometimes has the tendency to personify his relations with the state, the land, the people or the country as a whole, filling them with categories that characterize interpersonal relations (love, loyalty, and so on). If possible, he tries to influence the life of the country and to participate in it, as he sees it as his duty.
"Patriots" in exile can be divided into 2 type:
Those who have had a dramatic break with their own country.
In this case, drama means not only external conflict (prosecution and criminal cases brought against him in the country of his citizenship), but also internal (disappointment in the former homeland, unwillingness to participate in its crimes, etc.). In this case, as a rule, the attitude towards the former homeland is sooner or later transferred from such a person to the host country.
A constant advantage for another state is the fact that the “patriot” emigrant will sincerely try to benefit his new homeland. He will feel the need not only for professional, but also for the emotional realization of his attitude to the country in the form in which he understands and is familiar: try to make his new homeland better if it needs it, or, on the contrary, protect and store those forms of her life that seem to him optimal. Such people sincerely seek to integrate into a new society, and from them, as a rule, they turn out in due course good and conscious citizens of the host country.
However, it is important to remember that no one is perfect, and the "patriots", like other types of immigrants, have their drawbacks. I mean not even extreme forms of state deification, as it happens, for example, in Russia. But even with a lesser degree of attachment, a high degree of anthropomorphism and personalization of relationships with a country, their excessively emotional perception and translation into the category of sensual terms, such as “love”, can lead to consequences typical of interpersonal relationships. Simply put, love can be undivided. In practice, this means that the person did not calculate his strength and overvalued his ability to materialize in his chosen state.
In the event that a “patriot” is able to adequately assess the inconsistency of his abilities with the requirements of the host country, the tragic consequences of such “unrequited love”, as a rule, do not arise. However, if he is not capable of such an adequate assessment, or, even worse, he was really unjustly offended in a new place, some of these people may well fall into deep personal insults, disappointments, etc., typical of the classic phenomenon called "unhappy love". In short, there is a risk of transferring personal moments and emotions to the state as a whole.
The second category of отов patriots ’emigrants are those whose rupture with the country of citizenship occurred without shock.
These people most often leave for another country temporarily, for some pragmatic reasons, and there they continue to consider themselves patriots of their former homeland, avoiding the thought of an emotional break with it. Let me emphasize that such emigrants are not necessarily “quilted jackets” or, all the more, “fifth column”. Moreover, the love for the former homeland does not at all exclude from their side a positive attitude towards the host country, especially if friendly relations between the countries are maintained.
They can benefit the host country, but they will not feel genuine kinship with it, and in the event of a conflict between the homeland and the host country, they will most often without hesitation choose their former homeland. In rare cases, during such a conflict, they can go into the first category, but then they will have to actually re-build their internal relations with the host country, regardless of how long they have been living in it.
Under normal conditions, such people work, like everyone else, do not violate the law and regularly pay taxes without creating any problems for the host country. Questions to them can arise only in individual countries, where citizenship involves a special oath of allegiance to a country, such as, for example, in the United States, if they want to obtain citizenship of such a country.
2. "Cosmopolitan". Such a person sincerely believes that the category of "homeland" is unnecessary and even harmful. Patriotism is incomprehensible to him, and often deeply inwardly alien. It treats all countries approximately equally, choosing where it will be more comfortable. He does not want to build some kind of relationship based on obligations towards the state.
However, this does not mean any negative characteristics. In developed European countries, cosmopolitanism is the same form of worldview as any other variety.
Relations with the host country of such a person are built on the principle of a deal: he works, receives remuneration for his labor and believes that he does not owe anything to another country, just as she does to him. If the parties honestly comply with the terms of the transaction, and the emigrant himself is a good specialist and professional in his field, in the end, he himself and the state that has sheltered him will win.
Problems may arise, as has already been said, in obtaining citizenship in a country where a legally binding condition is a sincere oath of allegiance, as well as in situations where this oath must be confirmed by deed, often to the detriment of the interests of the emigrant himself. In this case, a person may experience a kind of “conflict of interest”. However, nothing prevents the “cosmopolitan” from obtaining a residence permit in a foreign country, finding a job and living there for his own pleasure.
3. "Consumer". The bearer of such a Soviet type of world view sincerely believes that the host country, as well as the people inhabiting it, should certainly help him. At the same time, he himself does not feel any obligations towards this country and does not feel any feelings, or even has negative feelings towards her, believing that she “does not fulfill her duties” towards him.
His demands on the host country are often exaggerated and are not based on laws or merit, but only on needs.
Of course, such a consumer attitude is often met by a negative response from the citizens of the country. In response, the “consumer” begins to sharply criticize the host country and, if he fails to achieve what he wants in it, as a rule, leaves it.
4. "Fifth column". Immediately, I’ll make a reservation that, unlike in Russia, this category does not denote dissidents or even Putin lovers. A person positions himself as an enemy of a country when he declares that he dreams of the collapse of this state and is looking forward to when this collapse will occur. As notedUnfortunately, there are quite a few such people in the Russian diaspora of the United States. However, they are in other diasporas.
By the way, among this category of people, the percentage of those who to some extent violate the law is quite high: it provides false information when receiving political asylum, secretly goes home if present, hides taxes, and so on, in a word, behaves according to the principle: the war is like a war ”, believing that the goal justifies the means in relation to the“ enemy ”state.
As a rule, such people sooner or later make themselves in the host country, if not troubles, then at least a negative attitude of local residents.
Of course, these categories do not in any way claim to be universal, as they do not exclude intermediate variants, but are merely sketches of certain types, the features of which we can easily notice in the emigrant environment.